android 如何使用Parcelable接口

作者: cnbzlj 发布时间: 2019-09-24 浏览: 273 次 编辑

今天,简单讲讲android如何使用Parcelable接口传递数据。

这个其实也很简单,之前我写过博客将关于Serializable接口传递对象,实现Parcelable接口也是为了传递对象,但效率更高,所以在网上查找了相关的资料,这里记录一下。

想要在两个activity之间传递对象,那么这个对象必须序列化,android中序列化一个对象有两种方式,一种是实现Serializable接口,这个非常简单,只需要声明一下就可以了,不痛不痒。但是android中还有一种特有的序列化方法,那就是实现Parcelable接口,使用这种方式来序列化的效率要高于实现Serializable接口。不过Serializable接口实在是太方便了,因此在某些情况下实现这个接口还是非常不错的选择。

1.实现序列化的方法

Android中实现序列化有两个选择:一是实现Serializable接口(是JavaSE本身就支持的),一是实现Parcelable接口(是Android特有功能,效率比实现Serializable接口高效,可用于Intent数据传递,也可以用于进程间通信(IPC))。实现Serializable接口非常简单,声明一下就可以了,而实现Parcelable接口稍微复杂一些,但效率更高,推荐用这种方法提高性能。

注:Android中Intent传递对象有两种方法:一是Bundle.putSerializable(Key,Object),另一种是Bundle.putParcelable(Key,Object)。当然这些Object是有一定的条件的,前者是实现了Serializable接口,而后者是实现了Parcelable接口。

2.选择序列化方法的原则

1)在使用内存的时候,Parcelable比Serializable性能高,所以推荐使用Parcelable。

2)Serializable在序列化的时候会产生大量的临时变量,从而引起频繁的GC。

3)Parcelable不能使用在要将数据存储在磁盘上的情况,因为Parcelable不能很好的保证数据的持续性在外界有变化的情况下。尽管Serializable效率低点,但此时还是建议使用Serializable 。

3.使用Parcelable的步骤

1.实现Parcelable接口

2.实现接口中的两个方法

public int describeContents();
public void writeToParcel(Parcel dest, int flags);

第一个方法是内容接口描述,默认返回0就可以了

第二个方法是将我们的对象序列化一个Parcel对象,也就是将我们的对象存入Parcel中

3.实例化静态内部对象CREATOR实现接口Parcelable.Creator,实例化CREATOR时要实现其中的两个方法,其中createFromParcel的功能就是从Parcel中读取我们的对象。

也就是说我们先利用writeToParcel方法写入对象,再利用createFromParcel方法读取对象,因此这两个方法中的读写顺序必须一致,否则会出现数据紊乱,一会我会举例子。

public class Person implements Parcelable{
 
    private String username;
    private String nickname;
    private int age;
    public String getUsername() {
        return username;
    }
    public void setUsername(String username) {
        this.username = username;
    }
    public String getNickname() {
        return nickname;
    }
    public void setNickname(String nickname) {
        this.nickname = nickname;
    }
    public int getAge() {
        return age;
    }
    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;
    }
    public Person(String username, String nickname, int age) {
        super();
        this.username = username;
        this.nickname = nickname;
        this.age = age;
    }
    public Person() {
        super();
    }
    /**
     * 这里的读的顺序必须与writeToParcel(Parcel dest, int flags)方法中
     * 写的顺序一致,否则数据会有差错,比如你的读取顺序如果是:
     * nickname = source.readString();
     * username=source.readString();
     * age = source.readInt();
     * 即调换了username和nickname的读取顺序,那么你会发现你拿到的username是nickname的数据,
     * 而你拿到的nickname是username的数据
     * @param source
     */
    public Person(Parcel source) {
        username = source.readString();
        nickname=source.readString();
        age = source.readInt();
    }
    /**
     * 这里默认返回0即可
     */
    @Override
    public int describeContents() {
        return 0;
    }
    /**
     * 把值写入Parcel中
     */
    @Override
    public void writeToParcel(Parcel dest, int flags) {
        dest.writeString(username);
        dest.writeString(nickname);
        dest.writeInt(age);
    }
 
    public static final Creator<Person> CREATOR = new Creator<Person>() {
 
        /**
         * 供外部类反序列化本类数组使用
         */
        @Override
        public Person[] newArray(int size) {
            return new Person[size];
        }
 
        /**
         * 从Parcel中读取数据
         */
        @Override
        public Person createFromParcel(Parcel source) {
            return new Person(source);
        }
    };
}

简单讲讲,其实实现Parcelable接口就是对对象序列化,使对象可以在Intent或进程之间传递。使用也很简单,首先写一个类,实现Parcelable接口,对每个变量设置get和set函数,然后重写public int describeContents();,这个固定返回0就可以。还需要重写public void writeToParcel(Parcel dest, int flags);这里面通过dest.writeString(username);将变量一个一个的序列化,然后在构造函数里写一个获取序列化数据的函数,参数为Parcel,比如public Person(Parcel source),通过source.readString()来一个一个的读取变量。这里需要注意一点,读取变量的顺序必须和之前写入变量的顺序保持一致,不然会出错。最后还需要实例化静态内部对象CREATOR实现接口Parcelable.Creator,实例化CREATOR时要实现其中的两个方法,其中createFromParcel的功能就是从Parcel中读取我们的对象。public Person createFromParcel(Parcel source)和public Person[] newArray(int size)都是调用new Person(source)来读取序列化变量的,只是createFromParcel是读取一个对象,newArray是读取一个数组。

这里还需要注意一点,Parcelable只能对内存对象序列化,不能对需要存储在文件或SD等设备进行序列化,如果需要将对象序列化存储到文件,实现Serializable接口就可以了。

最后贴上Parcelable源码:

/*
 * Copyright (C) 2006 The Android Open Source Project
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */
 
package android.os;
 
/**
 * Interface for classes whose instances can be written to
 * and restored from a {@link Parcel}.  Classes implementing the Parcelable
 * interface must also have a static field called <code>CREATOR</code>, which
 * is an object implementing the {@link Parcelable.Creator Parcelable.Creator}
 * interface.
 * 
 * <p>A typical implementation of Parcelable is:</p>
 * 
 * <pre>
 * public class MyParcelable implements Parcelable {
 *     private int mData;
 *
 *     public int describeContents() {
 *         return 0;
 *     }
 *
 *     public void writeToParcel(Parcel out, int flags) {
 *         out.writeInt(mData);
 *     }
 *
 *     public static final Parcelable.Creator<MyParcelable> CREATOR
 *             = new Parcelable.Creator<MyParcelable>() {
 *         public MyParcelable createFromParcel(Parcel in) {
 *             return new MyParcelable(in);
 *         }
 *
 *         public MyParcelable[] newArray(int size) {
 *             return new MyParcelable[size];
 *         }
 *     };
 *     
 *     private MyParcelable(Parcel in) {
 *         mData = in.readInt();
 *     }
 * }</pre>
 */
public interface Parcelable {
    /**
     * Flag for use with {@link #writeToParcel}: the object being written
     * is a return value, that is the result of a function such as
     * "<code>Parcelable someFunction()</code>",
     * "<code>void someFunction(out Parcelable)</code>", or
     * "<code>void someFunction(inout Parcelable)</code>".  Some implementations
     * may want to release resources at this point.
     */
    public static final int PARCELABLE_WRITE_RETURN_VALUE = 0x0001;
 
    /**
     * Bit masks for use with {@link #describeContents}: each bit represents a
     * kind of object considered to have potential special significance when
     * marshalled.
     */
    public static final int CONTENTS_FILE_DESCRIPTOR = 0x0001;
 
    /**
     * Describe the kinds of special objects contained in this Parcelable's
     * marshalled representation.
     *  
     * @return a bitmask indicating the set of special object types marshalled
     * by the Parcelable.
     */
    public int describeContents();
 
    /**
     * Flatten this object in to a Parcel.
     * 
     * @param dest The Parcel in which the object should be written.
     * @param flags Additional flags about how the object should be written.
     * May be 0 or {@link #PARCELABLE_WRITE_RETURN_VALUE}.
     */
    public void writeToParcel(Parcel dest, int flags);
 
    /**
     * Interface that must be implemented and provided as a public CREATOR
     * field that generates instances of your Parcelable class from a Parcel.
     */
    public interface Creator<T> {
        /**
         * Create a new instance of the Parcelable class, instantiating it
         * from the given Parcel whose data had previously been written by
         * {@link Parcelable#writeToParcel Parcelable.writeToParcel()}.
         * 
         * @param source The Parcel to read the object's data from.
         * @return Returns a new instance of the Parcelable class.
         */
        public T createFromParcel(Parcel source);
 
        /**
         * Create a new array of the Parcelable class.
         * 
         * @param size Size of the array.
         * @return Returns an array of the Parcelable class, with every entry
         * initialized to null.
         */
        public T[] newArray(int size);
    }
 
    /**
     * Specialization of {@link Creator} that allows you to receive the
     * ClassLoader the object is being created in.
     */
    public interface ClassLoaderCreator<T> extends Creator<T> {
        /**
         * Create a new instance of the Parcelable class, instantiating it
         * from the given Parcel whose data had previously been written by
         * {@link Parcelable#writeToParcel Parcelable.writeToParcel()} and
         * using the given ClassLoader.
         *
         * @param source The Parcel to read the object's data from.
         * @param loader The ClassLoader that this object is being created in.
         * @return Returns a new instance of the Parcelable class.
         */
        public T createFromParcel(Parcel source, ClassLoader loader);
    }
}